Reflections on the Singapore National Day Rally 2017

The Singapore National Day Rally 2017 took place on the 20th of August 2017. The full video of the rally can be viewed here. However, the salient points of the rally are depicted in the image (copyright: Reza Ali) below. (For a PDF version of the image, please download it here: NDR2017)

My personal reflections on the rally can be found below the image.

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Reflections

The emphasis on childhood education and development is an important one. As the Prime Minister noted, this helps ensure greater social mobility over time.

In my earlier article on income inequality, I wrote the following:

Governments and policy makers should also consider more directed interventions to enhance the social conditions of lower income families. For instance, in the UK, the Child Benefit offers a weekly allowance to parents for every child they raise. The transfer could be better targeted by making the income taxable as personal income, which will reduce the size of the benefit for those in higher tax brackets or who do not have face any other mitigating circumstances. In the UK, child poverty has dropped sharply whilst in the USA; it has risen by a third between 1969 and 2013. A child-benefit programme will help make a major dent in child poverty and also represent a powerful investment in the future. Introducing a child-benefit program in the US will make a major dent in child poverty and represent a powerful investment into the future.

The focus towards building greater support and increased investment towards the KidStart programme  – which ensures lower income families are supported in their children’s education and development – will have a huge impact on the recipient families. It will support greater social mobility and enhanced potential for economic empowerment.

The support being provided to expectant mothers even before the children are born is also similar to the Finnish system – and one which I admire deeply. Parents of new-born babies are given books to read to their children so as to inculcate greater reading, social and cognitive development amongst their newborns.

The second pillar of the National Day Rally was on healthcare, and particularly diabetes, is an interesting one. The Prime Minister’s emphasis on a good quality of life, rather than a long life is an important one. Whilst potential solutions, including the imposition of a sugar tax or better consumer awareness of high-sugar food are being reviewed for efficacy, the government needs to provide a clearer framework as to how the war on sugar and diabetes will be fought.

The final area of consideration at the Rally was that of a ‘Smart Nation,’ or the development of an integrated approach to information technology, employability and productivity in light of massive developments in the areas of big data, the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technology.

The Prime Minister spoke of a need to further enhance areas such as mobile payment – but beyond merely the technological enablers, there needs to be a greater consideration in terms of educating and socialising to people the benefits of such solutions and also help convince them that this is indeed the way to go by also clearing up some of the pain-points and fears around online security and their own protection.

The Prime Minister spoke of how technological innovations are driving areas of retail, logistics and security. However, the examples he chose also demonstrated how employability is going to be impacted – with less people able to do more. The Prime Minister spoke of how new areas of employability such as big data analytics will be created but urgent measures are still required to support the employment dislocation that is inevitable as companies use greater technology with less manpower. Whilst programmes such as SkillsFuture will go some way towards alleviating the challenges, there needs to be further measures to support individuals who are further down the education spectrum who need more help and assistance.

The close of the Rally with a fantastic story of three generations of the same family achieving social mobility through education was inspiring and inspired! It carefully encapsulated the central theme of the rally around how education allowed for the son of a gardener to become a rail engineer and how his son, through the investments being made in the areas of technology, has all the opportunities to succeed.

Ultimately, the National Day Rally was one in which the government’s duty to its people and building of the nation’s future was clearly demonstrated. The challenges are many, but not insurmountable.

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Why The Finnish Education System Works.

I’ve previously written about my admiration for the Finnish education system.

I just finished reading Cleverlands, a book by a London teacher, Lucy Crehan. Lucy decided to visit five countries with top-notch education systems: Finland, Japan, Singapore, China and Canada – spent time there with teachers and tried to understand what it was about the culture, the education system, the philosophy and the approach that have allowed for these nations to be amongst the top for quality of education.

Upon reading this very informative and thought-provoking book, I revisited the topic of Finland’s education policy and thought it’d be useful to share some pertinent details.

Start of formal education

Formal education in Finland only starts at the age of seven, significantly later than in most other countries.

The late start of formal education has had no impact on the competency attainment in literacy, maths or science by the time Finnish children turn 15. Finland still ranks amongst the top nations in the PISA rankings.

Before the children turn seven in Finland, quality time is spent on creating the right conditions that support the children’s holistic growth and development. There is a predominant focus on the development of social skills, positive self-affirmation, reflection on right and wrong and creating the basis for much more positive interaction with their peers.

This emphasis on holistic development before they start school has allowed for Finnish students to rank amongst the top of their peers globally despite starting formal school later than in most countries. This is further supported by a generally high staff to student ratio and where the teaching and support staff are all highly trained and qualified professionals.

Free compulsory and comprehensive education

Finland also runs a free comprehensive education system for all children for the first nine years of their formal education (from seven to sixteen).

All of the children are trained to the same curriculum during their time at comprehensive schools.

In their first few years in their comprehensive schools, children with additional or special needs are identified early by their teachers. These students are then given greater support and guidance with teachers who are equipped with the right training and skill sets. These children may then be placed in smaller classes where they are given greater bespoke support and guidance by teachers. Beyond this though, there is no further ‘streaming’ or classification of students into different ability groupings and the children remain in class together till the age of fifteen/sixteen.

Despite the relatively late start of formal education (from the age of seven), Finland not only has one of the highest ratings of their children’s performance in international education rankings, it also achieves one of the top scores in terms of equality across students – where the gap between the best and worst performing students is narrow.

Another important aspect of Finnish education at the comprehensive school level is that schools have a multi-disciplinary approach to children’s development. All schools or clusters of schools in each area have a support team including a nurse, dentist, speech therapist, psychologist and counsellor. This child welfare support team form the base support for all schools where each child’s progression is considered.

This approach to education has a significant investment outlay. However, the Finnish attitude to this is that it is much most costly (and wasteful) when any Finn is excluded from active society due to a poor start during their schooling years.

As Ilpo Salonen, Executive Superintendent of Basic Education in Finland (in an interview to Crehan) says, “When we are five million (population-wise), we cannot afford to drop anyone.”

Empowering the teachers who are educating the youth of the nation

“If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders. Instead, teach them to year for the vast and endless sea.”

Anotine de Saint-Exupéry

The Finnish approach to the development of their teachers is a fundamental underpinning of the Finnish education system

There is a significant emphasis on teacher training. All aspiring teachers need to first go through a rigorous and robust training programme, to Masters level, at one of eight prestigious Finnish universities.

Here, the teachers are all deeply immersed in understanding the pedagogy and educational approach towards a nationally coordinated curriculum.

Following this rigorous training programme, in their initial years, they observe senior teachers and have a programme of mentoring that help them further develop and refine their skills.

They are subsequently given greater autonomy when they are in schools (there are no lesson observations, no school inspections for example), and have the freedom to grade students to the age of fifteen (when they are in comprehensive schools) and even have the freedom to choose their own books for children!

This autonomy and trust provided to the teachers provides them with greater motivation and passion. In return for the trust shown to them, the teachers have a very disciplined approach to continuous professional development, where they spend time each year to learn new concepts and best-practices in teaching.

This Finnish approach of providing all teachers with the mastery in the art and science of education and teaching, creating a peer community of teachers, continuous training and respecting them by providing them with greater autonomy has reaped significant benefits for the education of children in Finland.

The power of culture

One cannot underplay the role culture plays in ensuring the overall approach to a high-performing education system.

In the case of Finland, the educational framework has a thoroughly egalitarian approach – where both vocational and academic pathways, post the basic comprehensive education phase, are deemed to be equal.

Children are also reinforced with positive affirmation and motivation rather than be shepherded early only in their childhood towards educational pathways which they may not necessarily understand.

The Finnish traditions also consider teaching to be a highly respected profession (despite the average pay) and hence the teachers who join the profession are intrinsically motivated and are committed to delivering public value through their custodial responsibilities of their nation’s youth.

For long stretches of their history, Finland and her people have been ruled by various colonial powers and were subjugated as second-class citizens. From the onset of independence, the Finnish people were determined to ensure they would never again be second-class and education was seen as an important lever to enhance themselves and their sense of self.

Finland remains a model of education for educators and regulators everywhere and has much for us all to learn from.

The Lions of Lisboa

An interesting story to share in these tumultuous times. Today, Celtic FC surpassed a 50-year old record for unbeaten games. The previous team that held the record were the Celtic team of 1967, who were also known as the ‘Lisbon Lions ‘for being the first British team to win the European Cup by defeating the expensively assembled Inter Milan in 1967 in Lisbon.

I managed to catch the play, ‘The Lions of Lisbon ‘ today at the Tron Theatre as part of Celtic Connections 2017. It is a heartwarming play for anyone interesting in catching it!

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It is also worth reminding ourselves of the origin of Celtic Football Club in 1888. It was founded by Brother Walfrid who established the club so as to support and feed the starving, to help those who were being persecuted for their religious beliefs, the refugees, and alleviate poverty through the raising of funds by hosting football games.

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This has led to the Celtic Football Club ethos of being open to anyone, regardless of their religious beliefs, their creed, race, colour or creed.

A message which is needed today more than ever. Hail Hail!

#Celtic #Lisboa50

The Lions of Lisbon

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Robots! Clear and Future Danger For Economies

I was at a conference recently and there was a speaker who was extolling the power of robots, technology, automation and artificial intelligence (AI) in the modern workplace and how it was going to revolutionise the global economy.

There was quite a catalogue of achievements as a result of increased robotics and AI including lower ‘FTE’ (or ‘Full Time Equivalent’ of human labour) requirements and greater efficiency, productivity and decreased errors and mistakes. These were achievements that were backed by undisputed statistics and data.

The ability to create consistently high economic value using systems, robots and AI which do not make mistakes, which do not break down often, which can even be self-correcting becomes very appealing.

However amidst the glories of robotics and AI, I felt increasingly concerned about where the world was heading with the increased introduction of automation, robotics and AI and the impact this was going to have on employment, social mobility and income equality.

My concerns

Technology as a displacer of jobs.

Technology, automation and robotics initially replaced blue-collar jobs and roles from the economies. Increasingly greater sophistication of AI means that white-collar jobs are also being replaced. We read various reports about the jobs of the future being technology-related roles that help create, maintain and repair robots and their related technology, but I postulate that robots can fix themselves (and their ‘peers’) better than people ever can and over time, robots can create other robots to do the tasks which they need done.

In the past, technology was an enabler. It was a great source of enhanced productivity for nations’ economies.

However, technology has now become a replacer or displacer – of jobs, of people, of roles. It has now become a tool to enhance economic output but ends up depleting people and their earnings.

This is going to be a longer-term fundamental problem and challenge to societal and economic growth and development.

The impact on developing economies

Let us consider Philippines and India. They have spent billions of dollars investing in the infrastructure and ecosystem to help create thriving shared services and business process outsourcing (SSCs / BPOs) businesses. This was to help meet the needs of multinational companies. However, with AI and automation increasingly taking on a majority of the roles and jobs that are currently being done by millions of people in both countries, it is going to lead to a significant job loss and risk the potential collapse of the SSCs and BPO sector in both countries.

Over time, with increasing automation and AI, multinationals need not outsource various roles to locations of lower labour cost. They will instead seek to outsource the roles to nations with the lowest tax and the best technology infrastructures in which they can base their systems and robots. 

The moral obligation and income inequality

With increasing AI and automation, I struggle to see how the job losses faced by millions as a result of robots taking on their roles are going to be mitigated. There also seems to be little alternative sources of formal employment.

Whilst it is easy to highlight how automation can reduce expenses by 66% and reduce ‘FTEs,’ I think we need to look at people beyond merely being an ‘FTE’ or as a mere factor of production.

 

Over time, it is going to also exacerbate the issues of income inequality which is already one of THE pressing moral issues of our time. I’ve covered this topic at length previously.

The factors of production, the technologies, the AI and robots are going to be in the control of a very small segment of society. Whilst it may create vast economic growths, it does not lead to growth in income or wealth for the majority of the people. This will lead to societal fractures which can be devastating to nations and society.

What then the moral obligation to people and society?

Possible solutions?

Leaving this issue to be dealt with purely by market forces will not result in resolution and frankly will be disastrous in my opinion. There needs to be a concerted governmental approach to resolving this and finding solutions that work.

Using levers such as tax policies will be ineffective, particularly in a world with little tax harmonisation. For instance, increased taxation for robotics-led solutions will only encourage a beggar-thy-neighbour policy and in a world with little tax harmonisation, it becomes a useless endeavour.

 

If we accept that robotics and automation are an inalienable part of the development of society, then we need to accept that the current economic models  will not be best suited for what the world needs. Maybe it is time for us to seriously consider and contemplate universal income as a way to mitigate and tackle some of the problems coming our way as a result of robotics and automation.

Universal income is something a number of countries are experimenting with to tackle income inequality which as I’ve explained earlier will only be growing with greater automation and robotics. Finland for instance has started a pilot programme, the Swiss held a referendum in June 2016 to consider universal basic income which did not pass as only a quarter of the Swiss agreed with it, the Dutch will be carrying out a pilot programme this year, and this is just a start.

What is increasingly clear is that it is not enough to simply hope the challenges brought on by AI and robotics are going to go away, there needs to be a concerted and strident efforts made to mitigate them.

Of Pianos and Harmony

At the Africa National Congress office in Kliptown

This is Thamba (in the photo next to me), originally from Swaziland but who was born and brought up in Soweto, Johannesburg. I had the pleasure of Thamba’s company as he showed me Soweto and helped me understand the history of South Africa, the impacts of apartheid era on society and on him personally. He went to school with Mandela’s daughter and therefore had the unique experience of having walked with Mandela and been very much a part of the struggle for equality as a young man.

Thamba recounted a very interesting anecdote about Nelson Mandela’s view on social cohesion and the need for harmony between the different races in post-apartheid South Africa. Madiba  (as Mandela is known fondly in his homeland) used the parable of a piano to highlight why everyone needed to march together to achieve progress. He explained that playing the piano with just the white keys or just the black keys, whilst able to produce a tune, will never be as rich as the symphony one can create if one was to use both the black and white keys together. This, he explained, was the route towards a  better and greater society and stressed the need for the white, black and other communities to all work together to achieve social progress. 

A simple message, elegantly put and to very powerful effect!

A Man’s A Man For A’ That by Robert Burns (a Tamil Translation)

Speech delivered to the Mother Club (established 1801), Greenock Burns Club.

6th October 2016, Greenock

Good evening everyone

My name is Reza Ali.

I would like to first thank the honourable members at the Mother Club for allowing me to be here this evening.

It is indeed my privilege and my honour to be able to address this esteemed audience.

I must also of course thank the boss and my mentor, Raymond Jack, for his support and for inviting me to my first Burns Supper earlier this year which was an eye-opening experience.

I live between Singapore, Glasgow and London but am originally from the southern coast of India, from Tamil Nadu. Not unlike Robert Burns, I also come from a line of farmers!

I was based out in Glasgow for a big part of last year on work and during the time I had the opportunity to explore the different parts of Scotland and it was on one of those trips that I visited Ayrshire and explored Robert Burns’ home and got drawn into the fascinating life and times of Rabbie Burns. His depth and breadth of writing from nature to hardship to love to family demonstrated a mind and soul that was as unique as it was brilliant. His ability to recognise and more crucially to empathise with the nature of the human condition is something is what makes Robert Burns truly great.

It was then I came across the poem ‘A Man’s a Man for A That’ and was drawn to its messages of universal brotherhood, liberty and social equality.

It is also my view that Rabbie Burns’ egalitarian world view is the perfect antidote this deeply divided world needs.

It was with this in mind that I embarked on this journey of translating ‘A Man’s a Man For A That’ into Tamil as I thought promoting and propagating the virtues and ideals espoused in this poem will benefit the wider community. Tamil is the language of my birth, an ancient language, and one that is still spoken by over 70 million people today. It is my hope that this Tamil translation can be further improved by my peers and also further bring the genius and the universal and timeless messages of Robert Burns across southern India.

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With the Executive Committee of the Mother Club (L-R: Bill McCready (Past President), me, Jim Donnelly (President), Jamie Donnelly (Senior Vice President))

Robert Burns, ராபர்ட் பர்ன்ஸ்

A Man’s A Man For A’ That 

மனிதன் என்பவன் மனிதனே அதற்காகவே

(The full translation and a brief history of Tamil can be downloaded here:)

அங்கே, யாரேனும் ஏழ்மையான ஆனால் நேர்மையானவர் உள்ளனரா,

வறுமையின் காரணமாக அவர் தலை தொங்குகிறது, அதற்காகவே.

நாமும் கடக்கிறோம் அந்தக் கோழை அடிமையை,

வறுமையை விரும்ப மாட்டோம் அதற்காகவே.

அதற்க்காகவே, அதற்க்காவே.

நமது கடின உழைப்பை மறைதுவைப்போம் அதற்காகவே.

சாதனை என்பது நமக்கு தங்கத்தில் முத்திரை பதித்த முகமே,

அவன் தங்கமே அதற்காகவே.

நாம் நமது வருமானத்தில் சிறந்த உணவை உண்டாலும்,

சாம்பல்நிற முரட்டு கம்பளியை அணிந்தாலும்,

முட்டாளுக்கு கொடுங்கள் பட்டாடையும், திராட்சை ரசத்தையும்,

மனிதன் என்பவன் மனிதனே அதற்காகவே.

அதற்காகவே, அதற்காகவே.

அவர்களின் ஆடம்பர பகட்டைக் காட்டிலும்,

நேர்மையானவன், ஏழையே யாயினும்,

அவனே அரசன்.

நீ பார்க்கலாம் எஜமான் என்றழைக்கப்படும் கனவானை,

விறைப்புடனும், கர்வத்துடனும் செல்பவனை

பல நூற்றுக்கனக்காநூர் அவன் சொல்லை வணங்கினாலும்,

அவன் முட்டாலன்றி வேறில்லை.

அதற்காகவே, அதற்காகவே.

அவரது பட்டமும் பெருமையுரைக்கும் நாடவும் மற்றும் அனைத்தும்,

சுதந்திர புத்தியுள்ள மனிதன்

அதைப் பார்த்து நகைப்பான் அதற்காகவே.

ஒரு இளவரசன் உருவாக்கலாம் ஒரு வீரனை,

ஒரு கனவான், பிரப்பு, அதற்காகவே.

ஆயினும் ஒரு நேர்மையானவன் எல்லாவற்றிக்கும் மேல்,

நன் நம்பிக்கையை, அவன் அதற்காக குறை செய்யக்கூடாது.

அதற்காகவே, அதற்காகவே.

அவர்கள் தங்கள் கடப்படுகளுக்காகவும் அதற்காகவே.

மற்றும் உணர்வு மற்றும் பெருமை மற்றும் மதிப்பும் வலிமையும்,

தங்கள் உயரதிகாரம் மேல் என்று அதற்காகவே.

நாம் அனைவரும் பிரார்த்தனை செய்வோம் அது நடகட்டுமென்று,

எல்லாவற்றிற்கும் அது நடக்கட்டுமென்று அதற்காகவே,

உலகமெல்லாம் உள்ள உணர்வும், மதிப்பும்,

அதற்கான பரிசை பெற வேண்டும், அதற்காகவே.

அதற்காகவே, அதற்காகவே.

அவையனைத்தும் இன்னும் வருமென்று அதற்காகவே.

உலகிலுள்ள எல்லா மனிதர்களும்,

சகோதர்களாக இருப்போம் அதற்காகவே.

The Amazing Story of the Magnificent Nine!

I had the pleasure of watching a fantastic Japanese film, The Magnificent Nine (殿、利息でござる! (Tono, Risoku de Gozaru!). The trailer can be viewed here.

The Seven Samurais have always captured the imagination of people with their valour and bravery. However, this riveting film based on a true story of the magnificent nine heroes – and theirs is a story that must be told and spread widely – is an important one.

This is a movie about sacrifice, about going beyond one’s own sense of privilege and thinking of the wider community and striving to support one’s people and community regardless of the hardships this may bring about. This remarkable tale was recorded by the priest Zuishi Eishu in his book, “Koko-on-ki.”

The story is set in the middle of the 18th century (1766 to be precise) during the Samurai era. The place is Yoshioka, a poor town, within the Kurokawa district in northern Japan. The people of Yoshioka were ruled at the time by a young feudal lord by the name of Shigemura Date.

When I first started watching the film, I’d assumed that it was a comedy; and whilst there were some laughs and warm-hearted moments, it could not make the deeply philosophical messages about the themes of sacrifice and noblesse oblige.

Yoshioka was a small ‘post town’ – so called because it was under the obligations of an old tradition (established 150 years earlier) called the “post horse duty” – where it was the duty of the folk of the ‘post town’ to transport all of their feudal lord’s goods at their own cost (including that of horses and labour) to the next unfortunate ‘post town’ which had to do the same until it got to its desired destination.

Due to the severe burden placed upon it, the little town of Yoshioka faced a growing exodus.  The people of the town, already in dire straits, went bankrupt and fled. The remaining town folk faced an increasingly greater burden as more people left and had to deal with growing costs of the post-horse duties.

It was at this point, one of the remaining residents, a tea grower by the name of Sugawaraya, hit upon an idea of a collective solution that will reduce the burdens of the townsfolk.

The idea rested on a simple premise. A select group of investors will band together and raise 1000 ryos (an old Japanese denomination) or US$3 million in current day terms and loan that full amount to Lord Shigemura Date, who was in straightened financial circumstances.

Subsequently when their Lord pays the interest on the loan, the yearly interest income will cover the full costs of their ‘post town’ duties for each and every person in the town. This meant that all of the people of Yoshioka will be able to escape the debilitating effects of the post-down duties and be able to build better live for themselves.

These few men had a belief that since they have the means, the can band together and create a solution for all of the people in their society. This small group of men will receive no returns nor profit as a result of doing this and their only benefit is the collective well-being of their town.

The efforts of this small band of heroes meant that the town of Yoshioka flourished and grew for a hundred years as they were paid an interest by the Lord and his successors till the end of the Edo era. Yoshioka entered the Meiji era as a vibrant town with a healthy and prosperous community.

It was profoundly moving to watch the story of the sacrifices of these unassuming few. One of them, Kokudaya, stated in his will simply, “Do not tell others what I have done.”

However the legacy of these men has somehow endured the test of time due to the efforts of the aforementioned priest, Zuishi Eishu.

Kokuday (who came from the Asanoya clan who were famous for their sake brewery) has his name living on as a beer and sake brewery in Yoshioka to this day. Please see photo below.

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The thoughts and words of Kokudaya’s brother, Jinnai Asanoya, also were very profound. When they were in the presence of a very powerful official of Lord Shigemura Date’s court and enquired why Jinnai had not used the horses or palanquin sent to fetch him, Jinnai demonstrated his Confucian belief system which guided him and  formed the cornerstone of his values and attitudes towards life.

Jinnai explained to the powerful court official that he was taught that as Man is the lord of all creation, it was not right for one to ride on the back of an ox or a horse and cause it grief. He further explained that riding a palanquin was even worse as one man being carried by another man showed nothing but contempt. He also felt that one should not make use of men or cause suffering.

Jinnai spoke the truth, risking potential death, knowing fully well that Lord Shigemura Date himself often used the palanquin and horses! This virtuous quality of speaking the truth, even in the most dangerous of circumstances is one that one should seek to emulate.

Jinnai, who lost his sight from his middle age, also spent the rest of his life spending the profits of his business in building and repairing the roads and bridges of Yoshioka. His sake business grew from strength to strength despite at one point being almost bankrupt because he contributed the most money to fund the loan at the expense of his business.

However Lord Date, who heard of the selfless sacrifice made by these men, ensured that Jinnai remained in business and ensured that Jinnai followed his commandment that: “Your business must not be ruined. If you fail because of your lord, then my honour will be stained.”

Kokudaya, his brother Jinnai Asanoya, Kokudaya’s son Oteomon also embody the values of filial piety and honouring of parents. Kokudaya and Jinnai’s father, unknown to them, had previously already started collecting money to do precisely what they did – to loan money to their feudal lord and use the interest collected to offset the post-town burden. His sons, when they found out, were determined to complete the task their father started, to the point where Jinnai sacrificed his entire business to fulfil his father’s dreams and desires.

This fascinating tale (and beautifully captured movie) encapsulates the ingenuity of men in times of need. It also extols the timeless values of service, duty and sacrifice above one’s own needs. Values which transcend culture, language and faith.

The notion that ordinary men can indeed make a profound difference if they had the right set of values and the company of like-minded men is one that is made powerfully through this movie and story. Get the DVD!!

If you are keen to read a more detailed plot and summary of the film, the links below will be a good place to start:

 http://jbspins.blogspot.co.uk/2016/07/japan-cuts-16-magnificent-nine.html

http://nanaironohouseki.tumblr.com/post/146487223111/summary-of-the-magnificent-nine

For those with Japanese proficiency:

http://blog.kahoku.co.jp/shokuweb/vam/2016/07/post_251.html

For anyone keen on visiting Yoshioka today and learning more, please visit:

http://www.town.taiwa.miyagi.jp/site/kanko/3571.html